Florence Rose papers
Scope and Contents
The Florence Rose Papers consist of 15 linear feet of material dating from 1832 to 1970. The bulk of the papers date from 1921 to 1970 and focus on Rose's personal and professional interests and activities. Types of material include personal records, personal and professional correspondence, organizational records, legal documents, speeches, research files, photographs, published and unpublished writings, and printed material.
Major subjects reflected in the collection include the birth control movement in the U.S., the legal and political aspects of American birth control struggles, the history of relations between African-Americans and Planned Parenthood, the politics of American hunger relief and prevention efforts in developing countries, efforts to promote cultural understanding between nations in the immediate post-WWII period, the cultural and demographic transformation of the American West after 1945, and Margaret Sanger. Major birth control organizations represented include the American Birth Control League, the Birth Control Federation of America, the National Committee for Federal Legislation on Birth Control, and the Birth Control Clinical Research Bureau, all of which merged into the Planned Parenthood Federation of America. Other organizations with significant representation in the collection include the East and West Foundation, the Meals for Millions Foundation, the National Woman's Party, and the Tucson Medical Center. The papers contain a significant amount of material on the life and legacy of birth control pioneer Margaret Sanger. They also offer insight into the life experiences of a first generation American woman who came of age in the 1920s, benefited from new opportunities open to women in the inter-war period, and bore the personal and financial difficulties that plagued so many professional women of her cohort. In addition to documenting Rose's own work for her causes, the papers shed light on significant historical shifts of the twentieth century such as the sexual revolution, the consolidation of a consumer culture which inspired the marketing of social and political issues, and the move toward globalization.
Dates of Materials
- Creation: 1832 - 1970
- Creation: Majority of material found within 1920-1969
- Rose, Florence (Person)
Language of Materials
Conditions Governing Access
This collection is open for research use without restriction beyond the standard terms and conditions of Smith College Special Collections.
Conditions Governing Use
Materials in this collection may be governed by copyright. For reproductions of materials that are governed by fair use as defined under U. S. Copyright Law, no permission to cite or publish is required. Researchers are responsible for determining who may hold materials' copyrights and obtaining approval from them. Researchers do not need anything further from Smith College Special Collections to move forward with their use.
Biographical / Historical
Florence Rose, born in New York City on June 20, 1903, was the youngest of three children and the only daughter of Jewish Hungarian immigrants, Charles and Katie Rosebaum. Rose was raised along with her brothers Felix and Leon in Brooklyn. In addition to secretarial training, her education included study at both Hunter College and Columbia University, but it is not clear whether she ever completed a degree.
After concluding her education, Rose held a variety of jobs that included sales, mail-order, and promotional work, often coupled with secretarial duties. From 1923 to 1929 she worked as a secretary and sales correspondent for the Larabee Flour Mills Corporation. In 1929, after she "spent one hot New York summer filing papers and then spent the next hot summer taking them all out," Rose determined that she "had to find something purposeful" and decided to move into public welfare work. As a first step in that direction she worked as the Administrative Assistant for the New York Citizens Street Traffic Committee during 1929 and 1930.
In July of 1930, Rose gambled and wrote to the internationally known birth control pioneer Margaret Sanger--whom she admired but had never met--and explained that she wanted to "get out of a rut and change my present position while I am still young enough to be shaped into a really valuable assistant to some executive in a position that I can regard as life-long." She billed herself as an "intelligent, loyal assistant," offered Sanger her services, and pleaded with her for a brief meeting. As a result of this long shot, Sanger hired Rose to be her personal secretary and administrative assistant.
Florence Rose began her official work for Sanger in September of 1930 and ultimately devoted the next thirteen years of her life to the cause of birth control. In addition to her work for Sanger, "Rosie," as she was affectionately known by her colleagues, also acted as the secretary to the National Committee for Federal Legislation on Birth Control from 1930 to 1937 and the Birth Control Clinical Research Bureau's Educational Department from 1937 to 1939. In that capacity she developed promotional materials, engaged in lobbying efforts, and coordinated national birth control conferences. Wearing a wedding ring and calling herself "Mrs. Rose" to avoid the discrimination and harassment often encountered by single women traveling alone, Rose also toured the U.S. in 1933 to campaign for the repeal of the restrictive Comstock laws. In 1934 she accompanied Sanger on a visit to eleven European countries and the USSR and in 1937 she traveled to Asia to plan and coordinate public health conferences that would promote family planning. Rose became a minor celebrity after she survived the initial Japanese bombing of Shanghai and narrowly escaped war-torn China on a U.S. battleship with a few other American refugees in August of 1937.
In 1939 the American Birth Control League and the Birth Control Clinical Research Bureau merged to become the Birth Control Federation of America (which would change its name to Planned Parenthood Federation of America in 1942). Having essentially achieved her goal of federal legislation to legalize birth control, Margaret Sanger formally retired and moved to her estate in Tucson. Though it was primarily her devotion to Sanger that had fueled Rose's work in the birth control movement, she stayed on in New York City after Sanger's retirement to work as a staff member in the Federation's Public Information Department. In 1941 she was appointed the Director of the Special Projects Department which planned and developed new areas of activity. Rose can be largely credited with the development of Planned Parenthood's National Negro Educational Program, its National Clergyman's Advisory Council, and its Public Progress Committee.
In July 1943, after several years of tension and conflict with Planned Parenthood director Kenneth Rose (no relation), Florence Rose resigned from the organization. Following her resignation she worked briefly for the Holland-Rantos Company which manufactured contraceptives, organized Sanger's papers for the Library of Congress, and performed research for the New York philanthropist Ethel Clyde. From July 1944 until May 1945 Rose worked as a consultant to Pearl Buck who had recently founded the East and West Association to facilitate the interchange of knowledge between average men and women in Asia, the USSR, and the United States. Rose developed fundraising and promotional programs for the East and West Association during her brief association with Buck. She resigned from the job so that she could explore opportunities for employment in the West.
After recovering from a serious Labor Day automobile accident, in late 1945 Rose moved to Tucson, Arizona to take a job as the Assistant Business Administrator of the newly-opened Tucson Medical Center. Though she loved Tucson--probably in large part because of Margaret Sanger's presence in the city--she resigned from the Tucson Medical Center after only one year on the job. In the fall of 1946, she moved to Los Angeles to take over the leadership of the hunger relief and prevention organization Meals for Millions Foundation from its founder Clifford E. Clinton. As the Executive Director of Meals for Millions, Rose worked tirelessly from 1946 to 1964 to build the organization, raise funds, and promote the distribution of Multi-Purpose Food, a very inexpensive soy-based product that could provide nearly complete nutrition to starving people. Using the public relations skills she had learned in the birth control movement, Rose succeeded in popularizing Multi-Purpose Food, distributing 65,000,000 meals in 127 countries and establishing many international Meals for Millions Associations. After her retirement as Executive Director in 1964, Rose spent the next four years as the Meals for Millions Overseas Coordinator. During that time she traveled around the world to oversee the hunger relief and prevention programs she had set up earlier.
As was typical for women of her generation, Florence Rose defined herself and her life largely through her relationships with other people. Though she deviated from conventional feminine norms by avoiding romantic relationships of any sort, she did remain intimately involved with her family of origin throughout her life. Rose took responsibility for the care of her ailing mother, who died in 1936. She maintained close relationships with her brother and sister-in-law, Leon and Rae Rose and participated in raising their children, Charles and Karen, including subsidizing their educations. Though she was long estranged from her brother Felix Rosenbaum (known in his adult life as Phil), she reconciled with him in the late 1950s when he was ill and down on his luck. Rose sent him advice and money regularly and, when he died in late 1961, it was she who arranged his funeral and put his affairs in order.
Rose also had a large circle of friends and colleagues throughout U.S. and the world. Despite the long distances that separated them, she maintained close relationships with friends she had made during her youth in New York. She also kept in touch with many of her friends and colleagues from the birth control movement. In addition to Leon and Rae Rose, her most important personal relationships over the course of her life were with her colleagues Margaret Sanger and Ernest Chamberlain.
Almost everyone who described Florence Rose remarked on her small stature (she was less than five feet tall), her energy, her enthusiasm, and her selfless dedication to the causes she championed. But despite her cheerful demeanor Rose experienced several episodes of depression during her adult life, some of them severe. In 1935 she offered to resign as Sanger's secretary because something had "gone wrong with the works" making her feel "utterly inadequate as a human being, ignorant of the most obvious matters to others, monstrously self-centered, and lacking in the most common decency and will-power to stop worrying others about her condition." Desperate, Rose sought help from various sources, including requesting prayers from the leaders of the Unity School of Christianity in Kansas City. After watching Rose deteriorate for several months, Margaret Sanger arranged a lengthy paid leave for her so she could travel to Arizona to rest and recover. Ultimately Rose obtained treatment for a previously undiagnosed thyroid deficiency which seemed to restore her mental health.
In 1968, facing a personal audit by the Internal Revenue Service and her final departure from Meals for Millions, Rose succumbed to another severe depression. This episode is not well-documented (Rose's papers include almost nothing generated by her after July 1968 when she began to mention feeling "paralyzed" and "dormant") but correspondence between others reveals the extent of her debilitation. In December 1968, Rose's longtime friend Henrietta Voorsanger wrote to Ernest Chamberlain to ask about Rose's "medical or mental condition," whether she had "qualified psychiatric care," and whether she was "able to live alone." Ernest Chamberlain described her final months of life as a "a despairing effort to regain her mental poise, outlook, and above all, enthusiasm." Unfortunately, this time Rose did not recover. She committed suicide on April 26, 1969.
Despite the valuable contributions she made to the birth control movement and her pioneering efforts toward ending world hunger, Florence Rose never saw herself as a significant person. She derived what little sense of self-worth and personal value she had through the assistance she provided to others. In a 1968 interview with Mary Barber of the Los Angeles Times she said, "I do think I have an intuitive awareness of greatness in people and feel drawn to be their hands and legs. I want to free them to do the work they must do--great people must not spend time with dog work." Rose's creative and tenacious "dog work" made her contributions to the birth control and hunger relief and prevention movements crucial.
It was probably her contact with the pioneering women's historian, Mary Beard, and the World Center for Women's Archives, Inc. in the late 1930s that influenced Rose to "pay storage rent for what original owners regarded as waste paper but which historians regard as valued archive material." But although Rose preserved her papers primarily in order to enhance the written record of Margaret Sanger's life and legacy, without realizing it she also performed another important historical deed. Ironically, despite her lifelong failure to recognize the significance of her own work, Rose carefully documented the enormous and absolutely essential roles that lesser-known and even obscure individuals like herself play in the larger processes of social, political, and cultural change.
18.313 linear feet (38 containers)
Public relations specialist; executive secretary; Director, Meals for Millions; birth control activist; and lobbyist. Major subjects reflected in the Rose papers include the birth control movement in the U.S., relations between African-Americans and Planned Parenthood, the politics of American hunger relief and prevention efforts in developing countries, and the life and legacy of Margaret Sanger. Individuals represented in the papers include Margaret Sanger, Pearl S. Buck, Havelock Ellis, Carrie Chapman Catt, Morris Ernst, Clarence Gamble, Charlotte Perkins Gilman, Harriet Pilpel, Emma Goldman, and H.G. Wells. Types of material include correspondence, organizational records, photographs, published and unpublished writings, and speeches.
This collection is organized into four series:
- I. Biographical Material
- II. Correspondence
- III. Organizations and Activities
- IV. Subjects
Immediate Source of Acquisition
Florence Rose donated her papers to the Sophia Smith Collection from 1961 to 1968. After her death, her colleague Ernest Chamberlain oversaw the transfer of the documents that had remained in her possession.
Additional materials were donated by Lauri Rose in 2015.
Reprocessed by Kate Weigand, 2000.
- Planned Parenthood Federation of America (Organization)
- Bethune, Mary McLeod, 1875-1955 (Person)
- Buck, Pearl S. (Pearl Sydenstricker), 1892-1973 (Person)
- Ellis, Havelock, 1859-1939 (Person)
- Ernst, Morris Leopold, 1888- (Person)
- Gamble, Clarence James, 1894- (Person)
- Lader, Lawrence (Person)
- Maazel, Lorin, 1930- (Person)
- Sanger, Margaret, 1879-1966 (Person)
- Scott, Michael, 1907- (Person)
- Skala, Lilia (Person)
- Chamberlain, Ernest (Person)
- Slee, J. Noah H., 1960-1943 (Person)
- Rose, Karen (Person)
- Rose, Florence (Person)
- Wells, H. G. (Herbert George), 1866-1946 (Person)
- World Center for Women's Archives, Inc. (New York, N.Y.) (Organization)
- Beard, Mary Ritter (Person)
- Brush, Dorothy Hamilton, 1894-1968 (Person)
- Catt, Carrie Chapman, 1859-1947 (Person)
- Gilman, Charlotte Perkins, 1860-1935 (Person)
- Goldman, Emma (Person)
- Grierson, Margaret Storrs (Person)
- Kross, Anna M. (Person)
- Pilpel, Harriet F. (Person)
- Schwimmer, Rosika (Person)
- Rose, Florence (Donor, Person)
Genre / Form
- Legal documents
- Organization files
- Florence Rose papers
- Finding Aid
- Kate Weigand
- Description rules
- Describing Archives: A Content Standard
- Language of description
- Script of description
- Encoding funded by the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation.
- 07/26/2017: This resource was modified by the ArchivesSpace Preprocessor developed by the Harvard Library (https://github.com/harvard-library/archivesspace-preprocessor)
- 2005-09-23: mnsss60 converted from EAD 1.0 to 2002 by v1to02-5c.xsl (sy2003-10-15).
- 2017-07-26T17:48:23-04:00: This record was migrated from InMagic DB Textworks to ArchivesSpace.
Part of the Sophia Smith Collection of Women's History Repository
7 Neilson Drive
Northampton MA 01063