Planned Parenthood Federation of America records group II (PPFA II)
Scope and Contents
The records of the Planned Parenthood Federation of America are divided into three sections, PPFA I, PPFA II, and PPFA III. This finding aid covers PPFA II. PPFA I consist of the earlier records of the Federation (1918-74), whereas PPFA II consists of the central files of PPFA from the 1950s through 1980s, though some earlier items are also included.
These records document the work of PPFA nationally and internationally in the areas of advocacy; medical services and research; legislation; public relations; and the specific work of affiliates, departments, and committees. Types of materials include correspondence, reports, minutes, memos, publicity, publications and other printed material, audiotapes, reference files, and financial and legal material.
Dates of Materials
- 1912 - 1998
- Majority of material found within 1950 - 1980
- Planned Parenthood Federation of America (Organization)
Conditions Governing Access
This collection is open for use without restriction beyond the standard terms and conditions of Smith College Special Collections.
Conditions Governing Use
To the extent that they own copyright, PPFA has retained copyright in their records donated to Smith College. Copyright in other items in this collection may be held by their respective creators. For reproductions of materials that are governed by fair use as defined under U. S. Copyright Law, no permission to cite or publish is required. For those few instances beyond fair use, or which may regard materials in the collection not created by PPFA, researchers are responsible for determining who may hold materials' copyrights and obtaining approval from them. Researchers do not need anything further from Smith College Special Collections to move forward with their use.
Biographical / Historical
In 1921 Margaret Sanger founded the national lobbying organization, American Birth Control League (ABCL) which in 1942 became Planned Parenthood Federation of America (PPFA). Between 1921 and 1942 the organization underwent two transformations. In 1923 Sanger opened the Birth Control Clinical Research Bureau (BCCRB) for the purposes of dispensing contraceptives under the supervision of licensed physicians and studying their effectiveness. The ABCL provided institutional backing for clinics. The BCCRB merged with the ABCL in 1939 to form the Birth Control Federation of American (BCFA). In 1942 the name of the BCFA was changed to the Planned Parenthood Federation of America.
The name change reflected a redefinition of the organization's goals from family limitation to family planning. While PPFA continued to function as the largest birth control organization in the country, it sought to position itself as a more mainstream and moderate organization committed to a broad range of programs related to reproductive health. Under the leadership of National Director D. Kenneth Rose, the PPFA expanded its programs and services through the 1940s, adding affiliate organizations throughout the country. By the end of World War II, the Federation was no longer solely a center for birth control services or a clearing house for contraceptive information but had emerged as a major national health organization. PPFA's programs included a full range of family planning services, including marriage education and counseling, and infertility services. The leadership of the PPFA, largely consisting of businessmen and male physicians, endeavored to incorporate its contraceptive services unofficially into regional and national public health programs by emphasizing less politicized aspects such as child-spacing. During the 1950s, the Federation further adjusted its programs and message to appeal to a family-centered, more conservative post-war populace, while continuing to function, through its affiliated clinics, as the most reliable source of contraceptives in the country.
From 1942 to 1962, PPFA concentrated its efforts on strengthening its ties to affiliates, expanding public education programs, and improving its medical and research work. By 1960, visitors to PPFA centers across the nation numbered over 3,000,000 per year.
In the 1950s PPFA began focusing greater attention on global population issues as new concerns arose over the political, social, and cultural implications of overpopulation in Asia and around the world. The organization became active in international birth control work through its membership in the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF), which Margaret Sanger helped found in 1952. In 1961 the population crisis debate, along with funding shortages, convinced PPFA to merge with the World Population Emergency Campaign, a citizens' fund-raising organization, to become PPFA-World Population. Later in the 1960s, after several decades of emphasizing a family-centered, more conservative program for public health, PPFA reasserted its primary commitment to championing women's reproductive rights. It was also in the 1960s that family planning began to win the support of the federal government. Alan Guttmacher, M.D., who served as president of PPFA from 1962 until his death in 1974, was an effective advocate for the idea of a woman's right to safe and effective birth control. He successfully fought for the development of federally funded domestic and international family planning programs. Guttmacher also played an important role in the development of the birth control Pill and IUD. The Alan Guttmacher Institute (AGI) was named in his honor. AGI is an independent corporation for research, policy analysis, and public education on reproductive health issues and is a special affiliate of PPFA.
In 1970, Congress enacted Title X of the Public Health Services Act, providing support and funding for family planning services and educational programs and for biomedical and behavioral research in reproduction and contraceptive development. The Family Planning International Assistance division was established in 1972 by PPFA, becoming the largest U.S. nongovernmental provider of family planning services to developing countries.
In 1978, Faye Wattleton was appointed the first woman president of PPFA since Margaret Sanger. She led PPFA in its ongoing battle to preserve access to safe and legal abortion, to protect client confidentiality, especially for minors, against encroachments by the state, and to preserve federal funding for domestic and international family planning programs. By the time she retired from PPFA in 1992, Wattleton had greatly expanded its program of advocacy around the idea that sexual and reproductive liberation is central to women's equality.
In the 1980s and 90s, PPFA faced an onslaught of opposition to family planning and birth control. The organization challenged regulations passed under the administrations of Presidents Ronald Reagan and George Bush that placed restrictions on U.S. funding of family planning services overseas and domestically. Organized right-wing opposition and violence against birth control and abortion providers also became a serious concern. PPFA continues to confront this opposition while it also addresses the public health issues surrounding sexuality and reproduction, such as the AIDS epidemic and the effect of poverty on families and children. Gloria Feldt currently serves as president of Planned Parenthood.
The Margaret Sanger Papers Microfilm Edition: Smith College Collection Series, edited by Esther Katz, et al., University Publications of America, 1995
290.03 linear feet (639 containers)
Language of Materials
The records of the Planned Parenthood Federation of America provide substantial information about the history of the birth control and family planning movement nationally and internationally. They are a significant source of information on all aspects of the history of birth control and family planning, including women's health issues; sex education; women in poverty; international population planning and policy; and the legal, political and social aspects of contraception and abortion. Types of material include correspondence; memoranda; minutes; reports; financial records; legal records; publicity; publications; photographs; audio tapes; video tapes; and posters. The PPFA Records are divided into three portions, PPFA I, PPFA II, and PPFA III, this being section II. PPFA II consists of records received since 1988.
The records are arranged in nine series. The contents of each series are arranged alphabetically, unless identified otherwise in the series descriptions. The series arrangement of the records is as follows:
- Chronological files
- Classified files
- Subject Files
- Minutes and transcripts
Immediate Source of Acquisition
PPFA deposited these records in 1988. Various departments have since sent additions.
Digital copies are available for select recordings. Please contact us for more information.
Related records available on microfilm: The Records of the Planned Parenthood Federation of America (Part I) have been microfilmed by University Publications of America. Additional records can be found in The Margaret Sanger Papers Microfilm Edition: Smith College Collection Series, edited by Esther Katz, et al., University Publications of America, 1995. Both of these microfilm collections are in the Sophia Smith Collection and in Neilson Library at Smith College. Reels are also available through interlibrary loan.
Preliminary processing of this portion was completed in 2001 by Amanda Izzo to allow easier access to unrestricted portions. The materials retain the order and organizational structure used by PPFA to manage them when they were active records.
Further processing was done by Maida Goodwin in 2016.
The PPFA filing system was designed to suit the organization's internal operations and presents complications for the researcher. The classification system used by PPFA is sometimes not very descriptive and obscures the nature of the material. Related material may be located in several places.
Starting in September 2022, Smith College Special Collections will be renumbering many boxes to eliminate duplicate numbers within collections in order to improve researcher experience. A full crosswalk of old to new numbers is available.
- Abortion -- Law and legislation -- United States
- Abortion rights movement
- Abortion services -- United States
- Alan Guttmacher Institute
- American Birth Control League
- Appointment books
- Best, Winfield
- Birth Control Clinical Research Bureau (New York, N.Y.)
- Birth Control Federation of America
- Birth control -- 20th century
- Birth control -- Developing countries -- 20th century
- Birth control clinics -- United States
- Birth control movement
- Contraceptives -- Research
- Feldt, Gloria, 1942-
- Financial records
- Guttmacher, Alan Frank, 1898-
- Human reproduction -- Political aspects
- Hygiene, Sexual -- 20th century
- International Planned Parenthood Federation
- Legal documents
- McCormick, Katherine Dexter, 1876-1967
- Motion pictures
- Planned Parenthood Federation of America
- Planned Parenthood-World Population (U.S.)
- Population policy -- 20th century
- Reproductive and sexual health
- Reproductive health -- Statistics
- Rose, D. Kenneth
- Sanger, Margaret, 1879-1966
- Sex instruction
- Wattleton, Faye
- Women -- Health and hygiene
- Women's health services
- Finding Aid to the Planned Parenthood Federation of America records group II (PPFA II)
- Legacy Finding Aid (Updated)
- Amanda Izzo, Maida Goodwin
- 2003, 2016
- Description rules
- Describing Archives: A Content Standard
- Language of description
- Script of description
- Encoding funded by the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation.
- 07/26/2017: This resource was modified by the ArchivesSpace Preprocessor developed by the Harvard Library (https://github.com/harvard-library/archivesspace-preprocessor)
- 2005-09-23: mnsss148 converted from EAD 1.0 to 2002 by v1to02-5c.xsl (sy2003-10-15).
- 2017-07-26T17:48:11-04:00: This record was migrated from InMagic DB Textworks to ArchivesSpace.
- 2019-02-28: Published top-level finding aid with link to PDF, and with correct access restrictions
- 2019-09: Imported inventories of Series I and II, updated a few notes.
- 2019-10: Imported remaining inventories, further note updates
- 2019-11-01: Added 11 boxes that were processed, but never included in the finding aid
- 2019-11-05: Corrected errors in import of Series II.
- 2021-07-22: Fixed incorrect box numbering in Series IV.
Part of the Sophia Smith Collection of Women's History Repository
7 Neilson Drive
Northampton MA 01063