Scope and Contents
This collection consists of duplicates from the Schwimmer-Lloyd Collection at the New York Public Library. The material contained here documents primarily the peace activism of Rosika Schwimmer. It includes biographical articles, clippings, correspondence, writings, personal memorabilia, subject files, and photographs. It also includes biographical materials on numerous friends and associates including Lola Maverick Lloyd, Jane Addams, Carrie Chapman Catt, Henry Ford, Charlotte Perkins Gilman, Harvey O'Connor, Eleanor Roosevelt, and Franciska Schwimmer.
Dates of Materials
- Creation: 1912-1950
- Schwimmer, Rosika (Person)
Language of Materials
Conditions Governing Access
This collection is open for research use without restriction beyond the standard terms and conditions of Smith College Special Collections.
Conditions Governing Use
Permission to cite the collection for quotations or for publication beyond "fair use" must be obtained from the New York Public Library. Researchers may not use for purpose of publication until Edith Wynner's biography is finished.
Biographical / Historical
Rosika Schwimmer (1877-1948) was born in Budapest, Hungary, the oldest child of Max B. Schwimmer, a grocer and horse dealer, and Bertha Katscher Schwimmer, member of a distinguished Jewish literary family. She married in 1911 but divorced two years later. An accomplished linguist, fluent in more than half a dozen languages, Schwimmer initially devoted herself to the cause of woman suffrage. She attended the 1904 Berlin meeting of the International Council of Women at which the International Women's Suffrage Alliance was founded. She settled in London in 1911 as press secretary of the Alliance. With the outbreak of World War I, Schwimmer focused her efforts on peace. In 1914 she traveled to the U.S. to speak with President Wilson and Secretary of State William Jennings Bryan on behalf of the Alliance's endorsement of neutral mediation of the war. Her flamboyant personality and ardent peace advocacy provided the spark that kindled sentiment for the Woman's Peace Party. She was also influential in organizing the 1915 Congress of Women at The Hague and establishing the International Committee of Women for Permanent Peace (later Women's International League for Peace and Freedom (WILPF)). The Ford Peace Ship, the ocean liner sponsored by Henry Ford that sailed to Europe in 1915-16 carrying an unofficial mediation commission, brought its passengers, including Schwimmer, a notoriety that led to her resignation from WILPF in 1918. Upon her return to Hungary, Schwimmer was appointed ambassador to Switzerland. In 1921 she returned to the U.S. where her attempts to resume her career and gain citizenship were thwarted by accusations that she was a spy. Her final citizenship application was denied in 1924 when she refused to affirm her willingness to bear arms in defense of the United States. She remained in the U.S. as an alien for the rest of her life, supported by her old friend and co-worker for peace, Lola Maverick Lloyd.
Lola Maverick Lloyd (1875-1944) graduated from Smith College in 1897. A pioneer suffragist and pacifist, in 1915 she co-founded with Jane Addams the Women's Peace Party, and later the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom. She was also a delegate to the Congress of Women at the Hague in 1915 and sailed on Henry Ford's Peace Ship. Lloyd and Schwimmer co-chaired the Campaign for World Government.
1.563 linear feet (6 containers)
Suffragist; feminist; pacifist; organizer, Ford Peace Expedition; and diplomat. The collection documents primarily the peace activism of Rosika Schwimmer, but also include some material on co-activist and friend, Lola Maverick Lloyd. Biographical materials are included for a number of friends and associates including Lola Maverick Lloyd, Jane Addams, Carrie Chapman Catt, Henry Ford, Charlotte Perkins Gilman, Harvey O'Connor, Eleanor Roosevelt, and Franciska Schwimmer. Other materials include clippings, correspondence, writings, personal memorabilia, subject files, and photographs.
This collection is organized into four series:
- I. Biographical Materials (Rosika Schwimmer)
- II. Friends and Associates
- III. Subject Files
- IV. Peace
Immediate Source of Acquisition
The collection was donated to the Sophia Smith Collection by Rosika Schwimmer. These are duplicates from the Schwimmer-Lloyd Collection, an archive on women's rights, suffrage, peace movements, and world government at the New York Public Library in New York City.
Finding aid revised in 2002 by Gayla Spaulding, intern.
Genre / Form
- Schwimmer-Lloyd collection
- Finding Aid
- Finding aid prepared by mnsss.
- Description rules
- Describing Archives: A Content Standard
- Language of description
- Script of description
- Encoding funded by the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation.
- 07/26/2017: This resource was modified by the ArchivesSpace Preprocessor developed by the Harvard Library (https://github.com/harvard-library/archivesspace-preprocessor)
- 2005-09-23: mnsss157 converted from EAD 1.0 to 2002 by v1to02-5c.xsl (sy2003-10-15).
- 2017-07-26T17:48:11-04:00: This record was migrated from InMagic DB Textworks to ArchivesSpace.
Part of the Sophia Smith Collection of Women's History Repository
7 Neilson Drive
Northampton MA 01063